Memory and Its Relationship to Sleep


We’ve all had the experience of having our memory fail us, whether it’s forgetting a name, struggling to remember what you did the day before, or wandering in search of a pair of keys. Before you ascribe that fuzzy memory to a “senior moment” or to the frenetic pace of daily life, try putting your head to the pillow for a good night’s rest. Sleep–how much you get and how well you sleep–can have a powerful effect on your memory.

When we talk about memory and its relationship to sleep, we’re talking about the intersection of two complicated and dynamic physiological processes–processes that science is still working to understand. Broadly speaking, we can talk about memory as having three distinct phases:

Acquisition: taking in new information.

Consolidation: storing information that’s been acquired.

Recall: retrieving memory from storage.

Sleep can play a role in helping or hindering each of these aspects of memory. Sleeping well, and avoiding sleep deprivation, can make a real difference in your ability to take in new information and to learn. If you’ve ever tried to study for a test or complete a work project while short on sleep, you’ve experienced the obstacles that sleep deprivation can have on memory acquisition. Even a very short period of sleep deprivation can diminish your capacity to form new memories in everyday learning.

One recent study illustrates the possible benefit of sleep to skill learning and the formation of new memories. Scientists studying the neural activity of mice found that a period of sleep immediately after learning a new skill encouraged the growth of synapses in the brain that were specifically related to that new learning. Tested on performance after periods of one and five days, mice that slept after the initial learning performed twice as well on the newly learned task than mice that had not slept.

Sleep is also important to your ability to recall memories you’ve already made. Research indicates that recall in both short-term and long-term memory is impaired by lack of sleep. A sleep-deprived brain is less effective at retrieving memories, while staying well rested can help protect and improve this “remembering” phase of memory.

While both memory acquisition and memory recall are influenced by sleep, it is consolidation, the middle phase of the memory process, that occurs during sleep. Memory consolidation takes new knowledge you’ve gained and prunes it, stabilizes it to preserve it for future recall, and protects it from disruption or degradation. When this happens during sleep, it not only secures memory for future retrieval, but also appears to free up the learning centers of the brain in preparation to take in new batches of information in the next waking day. Scientists are still discovering how memory consolidation works during sleep, but it’s believed that memory consolidation occurs during several different stages of sleep throughout a night’s rest. The slow brain wave oscillations and sleep spindles that are characteristic of deep sleep (also known as slow-wave sleep), appear to play a critical role in memory consolidation, particularly for forms of memory that involve a region of the brain called the hippocampus. The relationship between REM sleep and memory is especially complicated, and still not well understood. But REM sleep has high levels of brain activity and dreaming and appears to be important to the processing and consolidation of some types of memory.

The large and growing body of research devoted to the relationship between memory and sleep suggests that a routine of sleeping well can have a positive, protective effect on memory. Keep in mind that both the quantity and the quality of sleep are important to memory function. Here are some basic strategies that can help you sleep both more and better:

Establish a sleep routine. A consistent bedtime that allows for seven to nine hours of nightly rest is the foundation of a strong sleep routine and can help you avoid the sleep deprivation that interferes with memory and other cognitive functions.

Be thoughtful about consumption. Avoiding caffeine and alcohol several hours before bedtime can help improve sleep quantity and quality. Not only can these substances make it more difficult to sleep, they can disrupt normal sleep cycles, and may alter time spent in the stages of sleep that are most important for memory. Eating heavily in the evenings or late at night can also disturb sleep quality and lead to restless, interrupted sleep.

Ease your stress. Managing daily stress is also critical for healthy, high-quality sleep. Worry and anxiety are among the most common sources of poor and insufficient rest, leaving you with a tired body and mind at the beginning of the next day.

When you’re tempted to stay up late for the sake of being productive, keep in mind that you and your memory will work better after a good night’s sleep. You’ll feel better, perform better and will remember more.